A teacher has the copyright to the works s/he makes and has the right to decide how the works may be used. Generally, the university as the employer has no rights to the employees’ or teachers’ copyright-protected works. Transfer of rights has to be agreed upon separately. More information, see Copyright and Employment and Teacher as the producer of copyright-protected material by Pirjo Kontkanen, lawyer, University of Helsinki.
A student has the copyright to his/her work. Using a student’s work requires permission from the student. But it does not mean that the permission should be asked from every student when a teacher uses students’ work, for example, reading out their essays.
It is allowed to distribute only openly licensed materials. Distributing other kinds of works is forbidden without permission.
License agreements with database suppliers usually do not permit redistribution. This means that uploading digital copies (i.e., pdf files of articles) to ItsLearning is not allowed, even if password protected. Instead, you should give the permanent link to the article, preceded by the address to Arcada’s proxy server.
To share openly licensed materials, you can copy the link, send the link by e-mail or share the link in social media. Keep in mind it is forbidden to save works in the organization’s server or embed works as part of E-materials.
It is allowed to share with and give students links to the materials, for example, a YouTube-link, for the students to view the material themselves. This is regarded as private use. Linking must be made so that the viewer understands that the content is on the other platform than the teaching materials.
It is allowed to make a few copies of published works for private use but teaching is not considered as private use. When using published works in teaching materials, teachers need to follow the terms and conditions of the materials as well as proper referencing practices for all the materials they use. For example, teachers are allowed to include literary works and compositions in a compilation used in public education, but there are terms and conditions and regulations when doing so.
More information, see Compilations for Public Education by Anna Keune and Sanna Vilmusenaho, Aalto University.
Teachers are allowed to make copies of published works for teaching purposes by photocopying or other similar methods with contractual licenses. A valid Kopiosto license allows the partial copying of works and the printing of digital materials.
The maximum amount of copies per one photocopying event is the number of students plus a few extra copies for the teacher. During one term or academic year, a publication can be printed or photocopied a maximum of 20 pages but not more than half of the publication. Photocopies can’t be subject to a fee.
Photocopying workbooks, exercise, or answer books is prohibited. In distance learning, teachers may copy model answers included in the solution book to be sent to the student, on condition that the teacher is in possession of the book in question.
When photocopies of protected works are used, the name of the author or photographer should be acknowledged in accordance with good customs.
More information, see:
For research and education purposes, with Kopiosto’s digital license, teachers can also scan printed publications, copy texts and images from open websites unless the copyright owner has prohibited such copying and usage, and distribute materials in digital format in the school’s closed network. The licence covers photographs as well but not slides or transparencies. Teachers may make digital copies to complete teaching materials, and students can use digital copies as part of their assignments.
With printed publications, teachers may digitally copy a maximum of 20 pages but no more than 20% of the same printed publication for the same students during a teaching period or term. An article published in a scientific journal may be copied digitally in full, and up to 50% of an article published in a compilation (book) may be digitally copied.
With online materials, teachers may copy a maximum of 20 pages, corresponding to an A4 sheet size in print, from the same website for the same students during one term or period of teaching.
Digital copies prepared for teaching may be saved so that the digital copies are only accessible to the teaching group for whom they have been prepared. Digital copies prepared for teaching may be distributed via the secure network or via email to the teaching group.
The digital copies have to be reported to and labeled at Kopiosto. Teachers can do this at Kopiosto’s webpage.
More information, see Kopiosto copying license’s license terms.
The Kopiosto copying license does not apply to the digital copying of certain publications and certain online materials. The use of those materials is not permitted in teaching and research under the Kopiosto license. More information about materials not covered by the Kopiosto permissible digital copying and use, see Kopiosto copying license’s license terms.
Online free content is protected by copyright and may not be automatically copied into educational materials. Instead of copying, you can link, cite, or refer to an open online material for teaching purposes.
Creative Commons is a licensing system in which the author defines the rights of his/her work for the users. The author thus allows the users to utilize his/her work in a way specified through the license.
More information, see Creative Commons licenses. Other permissions may also permit the use of works. Therefore, always need to check the terms and conditions of the sites you use.
Other licensed e-materials inducing databases, e-books, online journals, and other e-materials may be used for teaching, study, and research purposes. Arcada Library has subscribed to multiple e-resources via the Finnish National Electronic Library, FinELib, and directly from the publishers and database vendors. Terms and conditions vary by each e-resource. More information, see E-resources and their access rights via FinELib.
Do not copy or save copyrighted material. Instead, link to the materials to be used in the course. When linking to licensed e-resources from an online course, it is important to create links that also work remotely outside the university network (proxy links). It is also useful to create persistent links (permalinks), as links copied from the address bar are too long and may easily stop working.
More information about how to create proxy links, permanent links to various databases and e-journals, see How to construct links to articles and e-books.
Traditional lecture teaching is usually regarded as performing to the public. Published works except films and plays may be presented and performed within lectures. The audience should be in the same space as the presented work. Please note that this applies only to teaching without separate reimbursement.
Published photographs are allowed to be included in the teaching materials with a valid Kopiosto license, and based on the proper picture citation and scientific representation.
Presenting music or audio record is allowed. The record can be reproduced from the CD or the internet. Presenting music publicly requires permission, for example, from the artist and the producer.
Film works and plays cannot be presented without permission. In videos, it is always needed to consider if the work is film work or not. For this subject, there are no practical guidelines. Permission for presenting film works can be acquired from Tuotos ry (Finnish film works) and M&M Viihdepalvelu Oy (International film works). Arcada has a specific license that allows films from many contributors to be presented in the classroom (more information in Finnish).
Social media is regarded as a published work. It can be presented in teaching. The materials, however, should be legally shared and privacy should always be considered when using the material. Web pages that do not include moving pictures can be presented in teaching.
Radio and television programs can be recorded and played or shown in traditional lecture teaching but cannot be used as part of web teaching material. More information, see Radio and television at Kopiosto’s webpage.
E-Learning materials can contain links to internet web pages. When linking to licensed e-resources from an online course, it is important to create links that also work remotely outside the university network (proxy links). It is also useful to create persistent links (permalinks), as links copied from the address bar are too long and may easily stop working. More information about how to create proxy links, permanent links to various databases and e-journals, see How to construct links to articles and e-books.
Embedding media as a part of teaching material is only allowed if the service provider gives such an opportunity to embed media.
Radio and television programs can be recorded and played or shown in traditional lecture teaching, but cannot be used as part of web teaching material. For more information, see Kopiosto’s webpage.
Uploading digital copies (pdf files) of articles or e-books to ItsLearning is not allowed. Instead, you should give the permanent link to the article/e-book proceeded by the address to Arcada's proxy server.
Use remote access (proxy) links when you
Proxy links enable students to access the resources from outside the university network. Construct the links as follows:
Teachers' or students' presentations can be saved without permission only in temporary use and in connection with the teaching, for example, studying the presentation for an exam by a student which is considered as private use.
Recordings can be made, for example, for presentation’s evaluation purpose but they cannot be stored and should be deleted afterward. Recordings can be shown only to those who were present during the teaching. Recordings shown via remote access requires permission from the recording’s creator and performer.
Please refer to Copyright: Use of materials by Lappeenranta University of Technology LUT.